Water for dialysis
It is now mandatory that water used in haemodialysis is initially purified by reverse osmosis. The Renal Association has published guidelines recommending limits of various trace elements and pathogens in reverse osmosis water.66 It is suggested that full chemical analysis of purified water should be carried out every 3 months.
Sample Requirements and Reference Values for Water
|Samples||Reverse osmosis water, tap water*|
|Container||Universal container. Sarstedt containers (product number: 63.9922.252) are suitable.|
|Precautions||Zinc and aluminium are found in the lid insert of some Universal containers (eg. Sterilin) and can contaminate the sample.|
|Minimum volume*||1.0 mL|
|Mean turnaround time||3.5 days|
|Method||Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry|
|EQA Scheme||Aluminium in water scheme, UK NEQAS, Guildford.|
* For assessment of lead in water, two samples are recommended; a first draw sample in the morning and a further sample taken after running the water for 5 - 10 mins.